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No 3
Vol. 3 No.
2018
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The paper attempts to answer two questions based on the thoughts of Plato and Kant concerning the issue of law preservation. The first question refers to the foundation of law obedience and the second one concerns the educational implication of it. The method of deduction is used in this study and in order to find the similarities and differences of the two philosophers' views the method of comparative analysis is used. Both philosophers define law preservation as the absolute obedience of law. The two aims of law preservation include: a) obedience of law in practice and b) scholarly discussion for the reformation of law. The two philosophers agree on three principles: awareness of law contents, awareness of necessity of law obedience, and the critical view to the laws and their contents. In addition, Plato holds two other principles: respecting the law and the absolute priority of law obedience and Kant holds the principle of reflection and discussion. Educational methods based on these principles are: explanation of legislation necessity in curriculum, presentation of practical models on obedience of educational rules, performing open sessions for discussion and reforming school and class rules and regulations based on the above-mentioned principles.
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Keywords : Law preservation, Obedience of law, Citizenship education, Plato, Kant ،
Subordination of educational action to End-Means schema is controversial in philosophy of education. Disagreements on this schema are due to different reasons, such as the conflict between this schema with student autonomy and the undermining of moral aspects of education in this model. On the other hand, the exclusion of educational action from the End-Means schema raises, in turn, some challenges. In order to take an appropriate position on this matter, this paper criticizes the Aristotelian distinction between praxis and poises based on the Islamic conception of action. Based on this critique, an extended version of End-Means schema is introduced for all human actions. Then, the educational action is first explained in terms of an interaction, namely a combination of two actions of educating and being educated issued by the educator and the pupil respectively and each of these actions is analyzed in relation of the suggested schema. In the end, it is shown that how the suggested schema is free from the weaknesses and defects of the traditional explanation of action.
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Keywords : Educational action, End-means schema, Aristotle, Islamic Conception of Action ، ،
The main purpose of this paper is to explain Churchland's radical embodied approach to cognition and learning. This Research is conducted by using concept analysis and critical method. This paper illustrates that how the physicalists account of cognition and learning is problematic. As an alternative, the neurophenomenological approach of Varela and Mathurana is introduced. They reject physicalism on the bases of the enactive learning and introduce a situated embodied learning. Varela and Mathurana argue that the mind is not in the head and so learning should be considered as an embodied (more than brain), embedded (functioning in a related wider context), enactive (involving things organisms do) and extended (into the environment). Therefore organism and environment are intertwined in the circularity.
bijan babaei - - Tahereh Javidi Kalateh Jafarabadi - Ali Moghimi
Keywords : Philosophy of mind, Radical embodied learning, Situated embodied learning, Neurophilosophy, Neurophenomenology ، ،
The aim of this research is to compare philosophical thinking components in the humorous stories of the ancient and contemporary Persian literature. In order to achieve this goal, a story from Masnavi and a story from Tanz va Shukhtabei Mulla Nasreddin were selected and analyzed. The criterion of comparison was Lipman's view about philosophical thinking components. These components were chozen from Lipman's works and were divided into three categories of critical, creative and caring thinking. In the second part, by using the deductive method and based on the theoretical framework provided in the first part, components of philosophical thinking were identified and analyzed in the the stories. The findings show that the selected story from Masnavi (The Fox and the Donkey in front of the Lion) is richer in the aspect of critical thinking and the two components of creative and caring thinking, being at the margin, make the story more powerful. As for the selected story of Tanz va Shukhtabei Molla Nasreddin (Bozorge Shahr), it is rich with regard to the creative and caring thinking. It provides a suitable platform for philosophical thinking because of the components of independence, innovation, testing, amazement, imagination, active and normative thinking. So, the two stories because of the components of philosophical thinking, are suitable for preparing this kind of thinking and they can be used in community of inquiry.
- yahya ghaedy
Keywords : : Lipman, community of inquiry, Molvi, Omran Salahi, Humorous stories
This article aims to consider and compare some concepts in Persian having the closest meanings to the concept of “education” in English. The main concept is “tarbiat”. The method of research is conceptual analysis for denoting some similarities and differences between the terms “tarbiat” and “education” in terms of etymological meaning, ordinary language, conceptual change, and contemporary usages. The results shows that both "education" and "Tarbiat" imply spiritual and physical development in etymological meaning; "Tarbiat" like "education" is a fluid word and has had some changes in its meaning from the past to the present time. In terms of the ordinary language, there are some similarities between the two words. Also, in the current usage, both the word “education” and the term “ta’lim va tarbiat” refer basically to teaching, learning and schooling.
Keywords : Analysis, Concept, Education, Tarbiat ، ،

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