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No 4
Vol. 4 No. 4
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The theories of Bildung are among the most extensive theories in German thought. An illustration of Bilung is given by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the concept of university named after him as “Humboldtian University”. A certain anthropological framework plays an important role in this idea. The main purpose of this article is to, firstly, explain and identify the basic components of this framework. The next step is showing the relationship between these components and the pillars of the idea of a Humboldtian university. The results show that "human" in Humboldt's thought is not a predetermined being, rather the ideal of humanity will be raised through humans' purposeful and ongoing actions. Essentially, it depends - more than anything else - on the principle of freedom, the expansion of situations/ situations and empowerment conditions in an inclusive interactive context with the (non-human) world. It is also the achievement of a balanced and homogenous personality that this theory represents for human beings. In addition, the achievement of Bildung in the social field is the promotion of popular culture, which will bring it to the attention of the whole community. It is shown that Humboldt’s idea of the university also includes such features. The result of this research is expected to increase our insight into the theoretical foundations of one of the famous university ideals, the Humboldtian ideal, of which we as yet have paid little attention
Ahmad Banyasady - Mahdi Sajadi - khosrow Bagheri - Meysam Sefidhkhosh
Keywords : Anthropology, The idea of university, Bildung, Truth-seeking, university, Wilhelm von Humboldt ، ،
The aim of this research was to explicate the childhood period based on the social constructionism, using the deconstruction method. Deconstruction is defined as analyzing and rereading each subject through defocusing and finding some aspects of the subject which are usually neglected. Generally, there exist two groups of theories concerning childhood: First, developmental theories that treat childhood as a natural and universal process. The second group considers the childhood as a special period constructed by society. Social constructionism provided a new sphere by challenging the concepts of developmental theories. According to social constructionism, childhood is a social phenomenon. Focusing on social constructionism, we will encounter special implications. In this way, education will take on a sociocultural nature. Knowledge, and consequently contents of subject matters, will get a sociocultural nature and will be shaped under the influence of other poles of education, namely teacher and other factors of educational system. The social process of knowledge construct leads to the preference of collaborative perspectives in education. Along with all these elements, pluralism will be legitimized in content and method.
reza sheikheh - - mohamad jafar pakseresht -
Keywords : childhood, development, social constructionism, deconstruction
The main aim of this essay is to explain Plato’s idealism in terms of general concepts and their educational implications. In this research, which is of a qualitative kind using the inferential method, the works of Plato, along with the books and articles related to his opinions are investigated. The research attempts to answer these questions. How is Platonic Idealism explained in terms of defining general concepts? What are educational implications of Plato' thought? The results indicate that Plato seeks to explain general concept as the representation of ideas. For him, these ideas are real but immaterial beings. The main elements of definition are concept and example. One of the main functions of general concepts is the use of them as a criterion for action in partial and objective situations, concepts that all have essential and necessary conditions and it can be distinguished on the basis of topics and also it can be put the plural things (examples) under a general concept. In terms of educational implications, Plato’s idealism entails a shift towards a concept-based framework in education including rebuilding curriculum, teaching methods, teacher and student relationship, and evaluation based on the discovery of general concepts.
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Keywords : Plato, Ideas, Definition, General concepts, Educational implication
By looking beyond what is often said about the importance and necessity of education and culture in shaping human and society, this article seeks to analyze the other side of culture and education that does not let the pupils to think in other ways of life and prevent them from creativity. Using the concept of "unrealized possibilities", the paper emphasizes on the ways in which culture and education prevent pupils from attention to some possibilities such as freedom and comprehensive development. The main goal of the paper is to answer these questions: How does culture and education restrain human minds from creativity and lead to the unrealized possibilities? How can the unrealized opportunities be realized? The method of critical analysis is used in order to answer these questions. The findings indicate that unrealized possibilities can be realized through providing pupils with cultural intelligence, creativity, meta-cultural vision, active role, and individuality.
elham zareh - mohammad hasan karimi
Keywords : culture, education, unrealized possibilities, freedom, creativity
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the historical discourse of the birth of the modern school in terms of power relations around the lives of children. The method used in this essay is Critical Discourse Analysis of Michel Foucault. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the formation of new schools is analyzed from Foucault's point of view and his commentators. According to this description, a transformation has occurred from a body-based abstinence to institutional development of child care and school development. The most important discourse developments include the advent of modern childcare practices, the concealment of punitive care around children, and ultimately the expansion of modern power over the child's soul. Then, the power relations were analyzed based on a documentary analysis of the discursive approach to childhood and education. The results show that the birth of modern school and different branches of knowledge such as child psychology and sociology that shaped educational knowledge were the result of the evolution of the underlying social, economic, and demographic policies and disciplinary technologies and did not necessarily lead to the freedom of children. Therefore, the lives of children depend on the liberation not from institutions, but from the domination systems.
Keywords : Historical Discourse, School Birth, Power Relations, Children's Lives

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