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        1 - Conceptual Underlyings of Childhood in the Evulution of History: Toward an Islamic Conceptualization of Childhood
        Narges Sajadieh  
        The main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the evolution of the concept of childhood through human history. First of all, we traced the various meanings of childhood in four historical periods (Ancient period, middle Ages, Renaissance and ultimately contem Full Text
        The main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the evolution of the concept of childhood through human history. First of all, we traced the various meanings of childhood in four historical periods (Ancient period, middle Ages, Renaissance and ultimately contemporary period) and their implications for child education. After that, applying conceptual analysis as our method we attempted to infer the key conceptual elements of childhood. Accordingly, this analysis provides four perspectives against which the conceptual patterns of childhood could be categorized and investigated. These perspectives, in spite of their different definitions and approaches toward child education, put forward four essential questions to be answered by philosophers of education dealing with childhood concept. The dependence of childhood concept on the concept of adulthood, and the nature of this dependence, is related to the first question. The second question is about the value dimensions of human nature and its nascent state in the child. The third question focuses on children’s abilities and the mechanisms of their growth, and the final question is concerned with the various dimensions of these abilities involving cognition, emotion and volition. Along the above line of thought, the four aforementioned components were considered for a possible use in connection with an Islamic approach to child education.This approach attempts to organize educational activities on the basis of the presence of one ability versus the absence of another. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Reason and Reasoning from the Perspective of Neuroscience Based on Antonio Damasio's View and its Implications for Rational Education
        Azad Mhammadi khosrow Bagheri Mahmud talkhabi Narges Sajadieh
        The main purpose of this study is the investigation on the place of reason and reasoning in Damasio’s view (with the emphasis on somatic marker hypothesis) and displaying its implications for rational education. The question raised up here is: what are the implications Full Text
        The main purpose of this study is the investigation on the place of reason and reasoning in Damasio’s view (with the emphasis on somatic marker hypothesis) and displaying its implications for rational education. The question raised up here is: what are the implications of Damasio’s theory for rational education? The research has been carried out by using the descriptive – analytic method. The neurobiological view of Damasio by emphasis on the role of body and biological regulation (homeostasis, value principle, emotions and feelings) correlates the flourishing of reason with emotions and feelings. Damasio believes that the coherence of cognition and affectional aspects is a necessity that originates from the evolution of organisms in order to maintain and manage life. Hence the proper function of reasoning is fundamentally dependent on the real function of emotions and feelings. In this view, reason defects, rather than being cognitive in nature, are related to defects in the functions of feeling and emotion. Hence, if the emotional system functions improperly, the decision-making process and reasoning will be faced with a fundamental defect. Among the implications of the Damasio’s perspective for rational education are: a) the recognition of the profitable role of emotions in flourishing reasoning skills; b) utilizing the capacity of reasoning to modify the counseling role of emotions; and c) integration, instead of segregation, of curriculum based on the interrelation of thought-emotion education. Manuscript Document